Aquilegia (Lat. Aquilegia, presumably formed from aqua - water, legere - to collect) - a plant of the buttercup family. People call it the catchment, columbine, orlik, grandmother's cap. In nature, there are many varieties of aquilegia from 60 to 120. All of these are grassy plants for open ground and growing at home.
Common columbine peduncles coloration: solid dark blue or dark lilac shade. The aquilegia is red, crimson, snow-white, lilac, and also two-colored species of eagle. The buds of the plant resemble bells with a complex structure:
- 5 sepals;
- 5 petals;
- long pestle.
Depending on the type of aquilegia, flower stalks can be with spurs up to 2 cm long, crooked or curved in a circle. The leaves are shaped like maple. The trunk is high on average 38-51 cm, can grow up to 80 cm. The stem is erect, branched. Inflorescence drooping type, single, depending on the type of aquilegia come in different sizes, but on average 5-6 cm in diameter. Seeds - 5 leaflets 2-3 cm long.
Of all the varieties of Orlik, 35 are cultivated. Most often, aquilegia hybrid (Aquilegia hybrida) is a symbiosis of European and American varieties. The Alpine species of Orlik (Lat. Aquilégia alpína) is often found on sale with beautiful blue-tinged flower stalks.
The coldest cold columbine is called Common Aquilegia (Aquilegia vulgaris). The plant tolerates cold to -35º C, has inflorescences of purple and blue hue. At home, only one kind of flower is grown - room-sized Winky aquilegia with a rich color and compact bushes (Aquilegia Winky Mixed).
Features of the plant
A beautiful and optimistic palette of elegant inflorescences attracts flower growers. Similar grassy plants for an open ground - a gift for the gardener. It is easy to care for the columbine, it is even easier to breed - it multiplies by self-sowing. The development cycle Orlika two years. It tolerates dry days well because of the root system, which goes far inland, which allows the catchment to extract water even in difficult weather conditions.
One of the popular areas where aquilegia landscape design is used. The unpretentious flower grows in difficult places where other plants rarely survive. Grandmother's cap may coexist with spruce that does not allow other neighbors. The powerful root system of coniferous wood occupies the upper layers of the earth, while aquilegia in flowerbeds rushes deep into the ground. It looks good Columbine with phlox, saxifrage, groats, cereals, ferns, iris, poppies.
Growing conditions and care
Orlik grows well in the open sun, but prefers penumbra. On brightly lit areas, it blooms faster, and the buds are weaker and smaller. The plant prefers well-drained soil, can grow on dry soil. For winter hardiness, grassy plants for open ground belong to zone 3 and can withstand temperatures from -34.4º to 37.2º C. Moreover, Orlik does not require special mulching with sawdust, straw or sand to protect it from the cold if its root system is hidden under the ground.
Why does not bloom?
The buds of the plant bloom for 2-3 years after landing in the ground. There are varieties of juveniles, in which the flowering period could simply end. Perhaps you used top dressing with a high concentration of nitrogen and went too far with it. For the plant to develop properly, proper care is needed. The main procedures that require aquilegia:
- Watering - the plant loves water. Its root system goes deep under the ground, because Orlik can survive even in severe drought, absorbing moisture from the lower layers of the soil. Nevertheless, the flower garden should be monitored and watered periodically according to schedule.
- Top dressing - is carried out 2 times in the summer. At the beginning of active growth, a mixture of potassium salt, superphosphate and nitrate is used. In the spring, humus or compost is laid out under the bush in proportion: 1 bucket per 11 square meters. m
- Weeding - weeds are removed when their shoots are still young and low.
- After the grown aquilegia reaches a height of about 80 cm, the garter of the plant is made on a peg, bamboo, and reed for support.
- Loosening - periodically held after rain or watering.
When growing Colombine, gardeners face the problem of self seeding. When aquilegia begins to scatter seeds around it, young shoots need not be weeded to the end. Experienced gardeners recommend leaving a few shoots of seed material. After 5-6 years, when it comes time to change the aged bushes, it will be easy to replace them with young shoots.
Preparing for the winter
When the columbine ottsvetet, its stems are cut to the rosette of leaves. Mulching is carried out at the age of 4-5 years, when Orlik roots begin to stick out of the ground. To protect them, peat, manure or other mixtures are added under the shrub after removing the stalks. Thus, the plant receives feeding before winter and is protected from cold weather.
The best option for growing plants gardeners choose at their discretion. Reproduction of aquilegia is carried out in several ways:
- sowing seeds in open ground;
- vegetative: cutting or dividing the bush.
To collect the seeds, gauze bags are used that are put on the flowers. Ideally, sowing is carried out immediately after collecting the planting material, because its germination deteriorates over time. It is best to grow seeds seedling way. When landing immediately in open ground germination deteriorates.
When to plant akvilegiyu?
Seeds are sown in open ground in autumn or spring. Transplanting aquilegia seedlings takes place in May or later. Time is chosen in such a way as to avoid cooling the soil from night frost.
How to grow aquilegia from seed?
Landing immediately to the ground
Before sowing, stratification is carried out. The procedure is carried out by 2 methods:
- Cold - planting material decontaminated in 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate is immersed in a wet substrate and kept for 1 month. in a refrigerator.
- Thermal - seeds are stored for 30 days at room t in cotton or sand. Periodically, the material is moistened.
The place is selected in such a way as to protect the young shoots from the scorching sun.
Planting by seedling
Seeds are soaked for 24 hours in water and then dipped into nutrient soil, which contains a light substrate of humus, soddy soil and sand in equal proportions. A newspaper or cloth is placed on top. Containers with seedlings are stored in a darkened room. Periodically, the earth is moistened with an atomizer. After 7-14 days, shoots appear.
The procedure is carried out in spring, when there is no foliage on aquilegia. Sprout cut from the bud growth. Its lower part is treated with a root stimulator. Then the stalk is planted in a shady place.
Suitable greenhouse, if it is not possible, you can plant Orlik in open ground and cover the sapling with a plastic bottle. Periodically, the plant is watered and removed the cover for ventilation. Rooting should occur in 21-28 days. After that, the plant must be carefully transplanted to a permanent place.
Pests and diseases
Herbaceous plants for open ground - a breeding ground for numerous pests and bacteria:
- spider mite;
- Bumblebee species Bombus hortorum;
- gray rot;
- powdery mildew.
Moths, mites and aphids perennials sprayed with insecticides or infusions of herbs. To repel nematodes, garlic or onions are planted next to them. Gray rot is not treated. Rust is treated with preparations with a sulfur content or with a solution of soap and copper sulphate. From the powdery mildew, the plant is sprayed with a mixture of colloidal sulfur and green soap.
Delicate aquilegia with elegant flower stalks, resembling crystal bells, will decorate the garden and home interior. Hardy culture is a great way to plant a plot with unpretentious and at the same time beautiful plants that require minimal care.